Study of the Recording Techniques used by ABC Classic FM in Brisbane

Carroll, A. D. (2005) Classical Recording Practice at ABC Classic FM. Other thesis, Queensland Conservatorium, Griffith University

Classical Recording Practice at ABC Classic FM


The study of the recording techniques used by ABC Classic FM in Brisbane is of benefit for my own professional practice, 4MBS and my students at the Conservatorium. The returns were quite evident as the resources at their disposal distinguished the ABC recording team as being prominent in the industry in Queensland. The procedures used by ABC Classic FM have been shown to me in detail and this education proved a rich reward for the work presented in the project study. I have also been exposed to the personnel of the ABC Classic FM in Brisbane and found them to be an excellent group of conscientious professionals whom I am now privileged to know in a professional capacity. It is my endeavour now to illustrate what I have learnt and its practical application in my professional career.

Aims and Methodology

It had been arranged with the Chief Engineer Gary Yule to allot eight hours per week including concert specials for three months at ABC Classic FM Orchestral Studio at Ferry Road, Brisbane. The concert specials would entail major venues in Brisbane these being: the City Hall, QPAC Concert Hall, Queensland Conservatorium Concert Theatre and The ABC Orchestral Hall at Ferry Road itself.

During these concerts it was arranged that I would help set-up and take note of the procedures used in the production. This included, but wasn’t limited to, taking note of the microphones used, the placement of the microphones, and how these microphones were blended to achieve the artistic result. It encompassed the equipment used and the resources available to the ABC. The documentation took the form of a diary, contained within this document, which dealt with the weekly events and the learning outcomes obtained. In the diary, specific information was correlated and assimilated before reporting the relevance to my professional practise in the report.

Context and History

Classic FM (CFM) opened in Brisbane in 1974 at Ferry Road, West End. At this time head office was in Adelaide and most of the orchestral material and dealings with the orchestras was done through the music department and this material given to ABC FM for scheduling. In the late eighties, early 90’s ABC Fine Music became ABC Classic FM and more emphasis was put on traditional classical music. Since then the Classical side of the music department has been absorbed by ABC Classic FM to make it more relevant to the Radio Network. This also brought the Orchestras closer to the Radio Network and thus to the audience. (J. Leonard, personal communication, May 15, 2006).

The Queensland Orchestra is housed in the same building at West End and a close association has developed between the organizations. The orchestra is a major component of the works recorded by the Classic FM recording team though the work is diverse in nature. Every month requests are made to each state for recordings and after they are played the allotted number of times, they are sent to the National Tape Library in Adelaide. Programmers can access the catalogue through Cane as described later in the document. No permanent broadcasting is done at Ferry Road except concerts which are broadcast live though landlines. Its main function is to supply content for the national network.

Learning Outcomes

The experience at Ferry Road has confirmed the validity of my techniques for recording classical music and as a result has given me greater confidence in my own process. The situational difference at the ABC gave a new context to my existing knowledge and developed the means for me to accomplish greater detail and proficiency. This has come about by direct experience with multiple microphone techniques shown to me in detail. As a mentor Gary Yule has not held back in relation to anything I might need to know, he gave me the opportunity to learn and develop the procedures for myself. My current level of experience was vital to be able to adapt to the new situations I was presented with and I have been rewarded with a renewed self-confidence in my own ability and the ability to adapt to new situations in the future.

Microphone placement

The use of outrigger microphones, or microphones placed each side of the stereo pair I found to be very useful in obtaining a full sound and enhancing the stereo image. I often use omnidirectional microphones when required to record a wide sound source but I found the outriggers a more practical solution. This procedure is also very easy to implement. At the QPAC recording, four outriggers were used and they were spaced evenly across the front of the orchestra, two each side of the stereo pair. On this occasion the outer pair of outriggers were at the edges of the orchestra. If overused it was found the outriggers will over enhance the left and right information creating a ping-pong effect between the stereo speakers and require to be referenced to the central pair.

I have come away from the experience at the ABC with a better understanding of using the spot microphone. Hans May likes to have the woodwind reinforced in the recordings, this is a good idea, as the other instruments around them can easily overpower this section. The number of spots would depend on the section size, piece and venue; one spot was used at the Conservatorium and two at QPAC.

I did notice that care needs to be taken, with the balance of additional microphones, as even a little over use could make the woodwind sound in front of the other players. Gary Yule adds the spot microphone until it is just heard, when panned to one extreme, to ensure only a small amount is added.

Microphone choice

One thing I did experience was the resource available in microphone stock. I had worked with most of the microphones but had not been exposed to the variety and number. The ABC has eight Neumann KM microphones at QPAC and eleven at Ferry Road. Working with a large number of Neumann KM84’s was a good experience, as I have a preference for this particular microphone. I also heard a KM 84i used as a presenter’s microphone through a public address system, even though I have used the microphone for voice-over I was most impressed with it in this application.

Rigging procedure

Rigging a concert is the procedure of hanging microphones from the roof. Safety procedures need to be implemented to avoid any possible negative impact. Microphones need to be secured in a way that ensures that they cannot drop to the floor below. The microphones, once seated in their XLR connect, are taped with gaffer tape as a double safety measure, both the tape and the clip ensure a safe means of hanging. It was pointed out that when you tape a microphone in this way you need to ensure you do not release the XLR clip inadvertently while pressing the tape to the microphone casing.

One useful procedure was to mark the length of cable so that next time you do the same drop you simply lower the microphone to the mark. The process of dropping the microphone harness from the ceiling was straightforward.

The physical position of the points in the roof can be a physical limitation when needing to drop a microphone straight down and it is well worth spending time to ascertain the physical position of the players before setting these positions.

The process of tying the microphone back behind the drop point makes the initial drop less critical as long as it is forward of the end position. I was educated in the process of using two traces at each end of the microphone bar to have a stable hook-up while using one anchor line.


As part of the classical recording community in Brisbane it was very helpful to me to become familiar with the recording team at ABC. I found all of the team to be professional and very good to work with. I personally had not worked with a classical producer, before being engaged with the project study and this was a valuable education. There is definitely an art to being able to work effectively with a producer in the professional audio environment and Gary was a good example. I am sure the relationship would even be more pronounced in the editing session with the precision and communication involved in the task. I do find working with producers an exciting undertaking, which can sometimes be challenging. Gary was an excellent mentor. He has been with the ABC all his working life and was trained by those who went before him. Every aspect of the job was second nature and just being in the same environment created a valuable learning environment.


The learning outcomes of the project study should prove to be of great benefit professionally. Overall the project study has reinforced previous classical recording procedures and opened up additional methods. This shift in process could be quite dramatic and it is yet to be realised what the full value of the time spent at the ABC will be. These new techniques, being clearly defined and documented, will become a valuable resource with the accompanying CD for reference. I am certain the learning outcome will be of substantial significance.

As well as learning new techniques in recording practice the project has opened up areas of future research, for example the use of outrigger microphones and their application, the Decker tree and the Blumlein pair. The project has given additional context to my own practice, which, before the study, dealt mostly with the application of a central stereo pair. Woram (1981) states: The first law of correct microphone usage is never use more than two microphones and adds that the engineer should understand its significance before setting up a third (p. 125). Although the two-microphone approach is still my main vehicle, I can definitely now use a variety of procedures in the artistic process. For orchestral recordings I will now include outriggers if the resources are available and, as only a pair of stands is required above my usual equipment, I cannot see much hindrance in its implementation.

The project satisfied an interest in Ferry Road, which upon discovery was fully justified by the findings. The contacts might yet prove to be valuable and I hope to keep the communication open with the team particularly Gary Yule, making myself available if any help is needed in the future. Overall I was very happy with the result of being actively involved in a facet of the industry that was previously undiscovered. I found the experience productive and long lasting.


This diary has been included as it contains valuable specific information that could not be covered in the summary report. Only the times where direct contact with the ABC has been documented though many personal hours have gone into the project study.

20-03-06. 0830. On the morning of the 20th of March, I entered the ABC Orchestral Studios, Ferry Road for work experience after sometime organising the project study. Having had a meeting earlier in the month I organised with Gary Yule the outcomes and specific dates I would attend.

The first work experience was “Keys to Music” concert recording of Shostakovich String Quartet No 8 in the concert hall at Ferry Road. The recording took place at 1 pm and I was helping in the set-up of the recording. The players were Natsuko Yoshimoto, James Cuddeford, Jeremy Williams and Janis Laurs performing as The Australian String Quartet. On staff from ABC Classic FM was Hans May producer, Gary Yule Engineer with Jim Ussher helping out with setting up and operating the public address system. Musicologist, Graham Abbott, compered the performance. The recording was made for Michael Rogers, an ABC producer in Adelaide.  The performers had microphones (Sony SCM-55S and SCM-77B’s) to answer questions about the performance.

This concert used half the room and I was impressed with the acoustic and quietness of the Hall, two factors I value in making a recording. The instruments in the quartet consist of double bass, cello, viola and violin. The players were seated in a tight arc.  A pair of Schoeps cardioid microphones with the CMC5 preamp was used, spaced close to the ORTF standard, two metres back and three metres high. Outriggers, Omni directional B&K 4006’s were placed three metres either side of the main pair at the same height.

I found this technique quite interesting as the side microphones kept a true sense of the stereo image while adding the acoustic effect of the room effectively. More reverberation was added to the mix, using a lexicon 224XL, a technique I don’t usually use in a good room, but I was impressed with the use of the extra reverberation. In a room with good acoustics, I usually try to utilize the reverberation through the use of room microphones or only use artificial reverberation in a dead environment, but this technique was a lot more straightforward with very good results. The microphones were recorded through the A3998 Neve 24:8 console onto a hard disc recorder. The hard disc recorder came from Adelaide and was returned to Adelaide for post-production.

During this visit I was able to find out information relating to the work areas, dress codes and obtain an orientation of the building. I also meet the Queensland Orchestras Production Manager Darryl Keys. The set-up was finished well before the commencement of the concert and I left at 1230 to attend a lecture at 1400.

25-03-06. 0700. I arrived at the Conservatorium for the second concert set-up. This concert I felt particularly of interest as I am presently working at the Conservatorium as an instructor in concert recording. I was not disappointed. Firstly we located the multicores, one multicore lived under the floor and connected the roof multicore with the gel cutting room, used for the control room. At this same junction, lines were run to the stage for the spot microphones.

I took a trip up to the roof to see the drop points for the microphones. The main pair had been marked to allow the operator knowledge of the amount of cable to let down. A central pair, consisting of two Schoeps omni-directional microphones with CMC5 preamps, was slung four and a half meters from the stage floor. The pair being tied back by a 100 lb fishing line attached to the bar by two traces augmented this position. This technique of using two traces made the bar firmly balanced while only using one support line. It might be worth adding that the line was dropped with the aid of a fishing sinker and the reel, a fishing reel was secured to the rail in the loft with a standard reel fastener.

The point of attachment in the loft was fifteen metres further toward the back of the theatre. The whole procedure was straight forward once seen. The cental pair was then pulled back two and a half metres from the drop point creating a position four and a half metres up, and three back from the conductor’s position on the stage floor.

The outriggers were two Seinnheiser Omnidirectional MKH 20 Microphones. These two microphones were on the extreme edge of the orchestra. Two Neumann KM84i spot mics were used for the woodwind and another KM84i for the tympany.

At the recording end we had Vincent Plush compering using an MD421 with the bass roll off, one position down from M (for music).  I helped Jim Ussher and Gary Yule set the concert up, Hans May came a little later to check the set-up and to listen to the performance. One technical problem was patching the video to the gel cutting room, as Jim was a video technician this made this job easier. The video was to be patched by the Conservatorium staff before the show, but this didn’t happen. As no person had the knowledge of the patch bay Jim and myself went to the bowels of the theatre and made the patch.

The recording was made on a laptop computer using WaveLab and an interface box. Initially there was some trouble with the earth on the computer, which disappeared when using the battery power supply. It was decided in the end to use batteries. Another problem that needed solving was the volume of the backstage monitor of the theatre stage. This is used so that the performers can hear their cues, and this needed to be dramatically reduced to allow the monitoring of the performance.

Gary allowed me time to evaluate the microphone position and how they contributed to the overall mix. I was surprised to find that the gain of all microphones, at the front-end, was equal except for tympany. The fader position of all the other mics, apart from the tympany, was about

The Queensland Orchestra, conducted by Nicholas Milton performed Josep Haydn, Symphony No 78 in C minor, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart No 21 in C, K467 and Franz Schubert, Symphony No 9 in C, D944.

As the space in the control room for recording was quite tight and my study is mainly concerned with the set-up I left the Conservatorium at 1300. Both concerts so far have been RAID concerts and I needed this format explained to me. The concert is recorded as if recorded live to air with an announcer describing the performance, and is broadcast as such. A copy of the music-only is recorded as a safety copy. The announcements can also be produced and included at a later date if necessary.

There are three modes of recording a classical concert at the ABC:

  • Direct which means live-to-air.
  • Delay, which simply means recorded and played at a later date and
  • RAID being recorded as if direct.

31-03-06. 1200. I arrived at QPAC for rehearsals for a concert commencing the following night at 2000. The description in the QPAC (2006) programme states:

2006 marks the 250th anniversary of Mozart’s birth, so in celebration The Queensland Orchestra rejoice with a selection of his finest works. From the nursery-like charm of the piano concerto, to the stormy passion of the unfinished Requiem, these were his last, and greatest, musical declarations (p. 17).

This concert interested me because of the in-house facilities the ABC have at QPAC. They consist of a Sony MCI 3036 console, the same as I have used at Triple M, JBL monitors and an acoustically isolated control room with tie lines to the concert hall.

The Neumann USM69, a stereo microphone adjusted to direct two hyper-cardioid polar patterns at 90 degrees. Creating 45 degrees each side of centre. Four outrigger microphones were used; the far outriggers at the wings of the orchestra were Scheops flat omni-directional with the CMC5 preamplifier.

The concert consisted of a 135-piece choir, The Brisbane Chorale, and four soloists. Sarah Crane – soprano, Milijana Nikolie – mezzo soprano, Paul McMahon – tenor, and David Hibbard – Baritone. A KM84i was used for each of the soloists, using extension arms. The stands were position below the stage on the floor, which cleared the stage of accessories and put the microphone in a good advantage point. Four KM84i’s were used to mic the choir.

As the choir were in the stalls behind the orchestra, large stands were used to get the four microphones to mouth height at the second last row, these stands were positioned a metre from the front row.

The other spot mics were two KM84i’s for the woodwind, a Beyer 201 dynamic for the tympany, which had pigskins to replicate the era of the composition. These sounded very good on the stage. A KM84i was also used for the double bass section between the first double bass and the player beside him. There were also in position two AKG 414EB’s halfway down the concert hall to add the acoustic of the room. For the piano concerto two of the soloist’s microphones were moved slightly to capture this instrument. These were pointed towards the lid of the open piano and worked very well.

Gary gave me a tour of the roof of QPAC and I saw the available spots for microphone drops. The drop points were limited to the holes available for small droplights that are removed for the purpose. I couldn’t foresee needing to rig a concert using the roof, as I usually only require the QPAC sling but it was indeed good to see the roof set-up and the possibilities.

The large Sony console easily warmed the small control-room, and as space in the room was at a premium I didn’t return for the performance. I did however listen in the concert hall for some time to get acquainted with the sound of the orchestra. I then compared the hall with the control room and was happy with the comparison. I left QPAC at 2100.

07-04-06 1000. I had a day in the office with Gary Yule. Here I became acquainted with WaveLab, the editing and recording programme used by the ABC. WaveLab is the same programme that 4MBS use, though I do my post-production at home on Protools. I was very happy to have the opportunity to start working the programme. I was shown Cane, which is the ABC database of the concerts recorded. The name Cane came from Tony Cane a former planner/scheduler at the ABC. I was able to print out information pertaining to the concert at the Conservatorium. The database enables programmers, recording and production staff to search by composer, date, piece, event, ensemble, artists, broadcast rights and venue.

It gives important information like how many on-air plays it has and how many more plays are allowed. Master number or media ID, duration of performances are also integral information. An artistic and technical report by the producer is included in this report.

05-05-06 0700. The Queensland Orchestra played a ‘Tea and Symphony’ concert entitled ‘Angel of Peace’ at the Brisbane City Hall Auditorium. I arrived at seven o’clock to load the equipment; this early time ensured that the recording equipment was loaded in before the orchestra truck arrived. The concert was conducted by Werner Andreas Albert, an internationally acclaimed conductor, and presented by Howard Ainsworth from 4MBS. The music comprised of three works Angel of Peace: Overture by Siegfried Wagner, Oboe Concerto by Vaughan Williams and Symphony in D minor composed by Cesar Franck. The concert featured Duncan Tolmie on oboe. The concert in the Auditorium started at eleven AM and included morning tea.

The recording equipment used was fairly standard for outside recordings except certain looms, which were prepared specifically for the different venues. This standard equipment is comprised of the Studer 16/2 console, feeding a DEL latitude/ D610 laptop via an Edirol USB Audio Capture UA-25 interface.

A separate split of the stereo mix was distributed to the Sony Digital Audio Recorder PCM-2700 a DAT (Digital Audio Tape) recorder. Additional reverberation was added with a Lexicon PCM60, settings on the reverb were; large room, penultimate time value without the use of contour. A number of sets of Beyer DT 990 headphones were used for monitoring and four sets were needed in this case. The personnel in attendance were Gary Yule, Hans May, Jim Ussher and myself.

The recording was engineered with a Scheops hyper cardioid pair and omni B&K outriggers spaced three metres away. The floor stands were at full extension with an additional extension arm screwed to the stand. This made the three front line microphones three meters from the conductor’s riser. The top of the riser was over a metre above the floor of the auditorium. The outriggers were at the same height as the main pair. This is exceptionally high for a microphone stand and these have a heavy base to facilitate this reach.

A Km84i was used for the oboe soloist, an AKG 414EB for the harp using the figure eight polar pattern. The set-up incorporated two Km84i microphones for the woodwind, and a Seinnheiser MD421 for the tympany. All microphones had the high pass filter on at the console and were recorded mostly flat except for a little 3 kHz on the harp and tympany. Windsocks were needed for the frontline because of the air-conditioning moving the air across the diaphragm. The other microphones were in a more protected environment being closer to the floor and were operated as usual. The record level was set to -17 dBfs on the DAT and also on the laptop computer running WaveLab. The Queensland Orchestra brought in a backup recorder being a Yamaha natural sound HDD/CD recorder, CDR HD 1500 to keep for their records.

The woodwind was naturally strong in the hall and at times the spot wasn’t used in the main mix. The harp was very much benefited by the spot microphone and this is evident in the recording. The applause was faded down to prevent over modulation and this was an obviously simple technique but one that I have neglected to use, resorting to set the overall level to include the applause transients which can be quite high.

I also learnt about the language used in the orchestral environment: the terms V1 and V2 referring to the outriggers used on the violin side of the stage. The term C1, C2 to refer to the Cello side of the orchestra, stage left or the right side of the sound field. I also came into contact with the code for describing the number and type of players used in an orchestra, for example the number of strings being used. 12 10 8 6 4, as in the QPAC concert, represented 12 first violins, 10 second violins, 8 violas, 6 cellos and 4 double basses.  Wind and Brass are likewise represented with additional instrumentation following. This knowledge could be quite useful in the planning of concerts in the future. This concert I felt was quite successful and the recording team said it was an easier set-up and pull-down with the extra person. I left at 1230.

11-05-06. 0900. I spent the day with Gary Yule and started the compilation of the concerts so far. I wanted to fit the material onto one CD for inclusion with the report. This meant selecting movements within the pieces to reflect the techniques in the recording. Luckily Gary had a DAT tape of the ‘Keys on Music’ performance with the Australian String Quartet. This was transferred onto the hard disc recorder before we were able to import it into WaveLab.

I came away with two CDs one with extended versions for my own records. The compilation was comprised of segments from the first four shows but it is questionable at this stage if the last performance will be able to be documented in this way. It was arranged that I would visit again on May 30 when the ABC would be setting up the Queensland Orchestra for a concert the next day. The Tuesday session is in preparation for a Wednesday night concert so it gives Gary and myself some valuable time together. As rehearsals take place on this day, I will be able to see the Decca Tree in operation. This will be an important as the techniques for the concert will be the same as if in a solely recording environment. Even though this recording will absent in the written report it proves to be fascinating. Gary has suggested that we could set the stereo Neumann as a ‘Blumlein Pair’ as neither of us has used the technique. The technique is said to give a very accurate stereo picture if used correctly and the technique is well described by John Woram (1981):

In this technique, the stereo microphone consists of two bi-directional elements. The front of the one microphone is pointed towards the left side of the orchestra, while the other is pointed toward the right. The distance between the microphone and the orchestra is usually equal to about half the width of the ensemble, so that the angle between the microphone axes is 90°. With one microphone routed to the left speaker and the other to the right, the reproduced sound conveys a very accurate impression of both the width and depth of the orchestra. It is quite easy to determine which instruments are in the foreground and which are further back, although the engineer has no control over the internal balance of the ensemble. The ambiguities of the binaural pickup are considerably lessened, since off-center sounds reach the live front of one microphone and the dead side of the other. Both microphones pick up centered sounds equally, and the ratio of direct to reverberation sound gives the listener an impression of the distance between microphone and performer (p. 132).

The full record of the procedure above was documented for reference to the set-up procedure and was sent to Gary. It would be difficult to set up this recording technique without a stereo microphone as the coincident placement of two microphones without specialised harnesses can prove to be extremely awkward. I finished at 1430.

25-05-2006. 0900. I received valuable corrections and additions to the written report from Gary Yule. I also obtained my letter of attendance and a copy of the ABC Engineering Training Manuals (ABC. 1973) on: microphones and microphone placement, and stereophonic operations.

30-05-2006. 0900. I attended ABC Classic FM Ferry Road for the last time. I was able to record the Queensland Orchestra with the Decca tree and the Blumlein pair onto DAT. Gary then recorded his balance for a reference. I was very impressed with the Blumlein pair and Gary could include the pair for the recording the next day.


ABC. (1973). Stereophonic Operations. Sydney: Australian Broadcasting Corporation.

QPAC. (2006). Centrestage MAR-APR 2006. Brisbane: QPAC

Woram, J.M. (1981). The recording studio handbook. New York: Elar Publishing Company, Inc.

Appendix C: CD track list.

Track 1: Australian String Quartet. ‘Keys on Music’ concert recording of Shostakovich String Quartet No 8 recorded in the ABC concert hall at Ferry Road on the 20th March 2006. The players were Natsuko Yoshimoto, James Cuddeford, Jeremy Williams and Janis Laurs.

Track 2: RAID introduction by Vincent Plush for the concert recorded on the 20th March 2006 (track 3).

Track 3: The Queensland Orchestra, conducted by Nicholas Milton, First movement of Josep Haydn, Symphony No 78 in C minor. Recorded at the Queensland Conservatorium theatre on the 20th March 2006.

Track 4: The Queensland orchestra and The Brisbane Chorale conducted by Arvo Volmer, with four soloists. Sarah Crane – soprano, Milijana Nikolie – mezzo soprano, Paul McMahon – tenor, and David Hibbard – Baritone. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, third movement of Requiem Mass in D minor, K626. Recorded at the Queensland Performing Arts Complex (QPAC) on the 1st of April 2006.

Track 5: The Queensland Orchestra ‘Tea and Symphony’ concert entitled ‘Angel of Peace’ conducted by Werner Andreas Albert. Cesar Franck, third and fourth movements of Symphony in D minor. Recorded at the Auditorium of City Hall on the 5th of May 2006.


Appendix C: CD track list.

Track 1: Australian String Quartet. ‘Keys on Music’ concert recording of Shostakovich String Quartet No 8 recorded in the ABC concert hall at Ferry Road on the 20th March 2006. The players were Natsuko Yoshimoto, James Cuddeford, Jeremy Williams and Janis Laurs.

Track 2: RAID introduction by Vincent Plush for the concert recorded on the 20th March 2006 (track 3).

Track 3: The Queensland Orchestra, conducted by Nicholas Milton, First movement of Josep Haydn, Symphony No 78 in C minor. Recorded at the Queensland Conservatorium theatre on the 20th March 2006.

Track 4: The Queensland orchestra and The Brisbane Chorale conducted by Arvo Volmer, with four soloists. Sarah Crane – soprano, Milijana Nikolie – mezzo soprano, Paul McMahon – tenor, and David Hibbard – Baritone. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, third movement of Requiem Mass in D minor, K626. Recorded at the Queensland Performing Arts Complex (QPAC) on the 1st of April 2006.

Track 5: The Queensland Orchestra ‘Tea and Symphony’ concert entitled ‘Angel of Peace’ conducted by Werner Andreas Albert. Cesar Franck, third and fourth movements of Symphony in D minor. Recorded at the Auditorium of City Hall on the 5th of May 2006.


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